Dołęga broke the snatch world record in 2002 with 198 kg, and in 2006 with 199 kg.
In 2004 Dołęga was banned for two years because of doping use.
He won at the 2006 World Weightlifting Championships, with a total of 415 kg. He also won at the 2006 European Weightlifting Championships. He represented Poland at the 2008 Summer Olympics, ranking 3rd with a total of 420 kg.
He won the gold medal in the 105 kg category again at the 2009 World Weightlifting Championships, with a total of 426 kg.